are those who have a role in the response to a crises. Stakeholders
are special interest audiences. Both are critical to your communication
success. Even, or especially, during a visit you should be prepared
to focus on stakeholders and partners because they may:
what you need to know
points of view outside of your organization's
to more effective communication.
You must identify partners and stakeholders, understand their information
needs, tell them what you need from them, and have a detailed plan of
how to communicate with them during a crisis.30
are individuals and organizations that will play a role in crisis response.
The following table lists essential actions that you should take.
who must and can help in a crisis
the orientation of their organization
the orientation of their organization and issues that are important
strengths, weaknesses, and potential roles
clearly and specifically what resources they can and are willing
to add to effective communication
roles and coordination details
devil is in the details; work out who, what, why, where, when, and
contact sheets and understand organizational hierarchy
24-hour emergency contact information and know who makes the decisions.
Make sure you are connected to the right people to get action.
are persons or organizations who have a special connection or interest
in your organization. The following are examples of stakeholders
you may encounter:
of your organization
and community leaders
or labor organizations
compile your list of Stakeholders, be sure that you know the answer
to the following questions.
are your most important stakeholders?
issues are most important to them?
should be the point of contact?
their relationship to your organization (advocate, adversary, or
should know what kind of stakeholder you are working with. Realizing
this will determine what your communication objective is.
loyalty If you stakeholder is an advocate, your communication
objective is to maintain loyalty.
negative action If you stakeholder is an adversary, your communication
objective is to discourage negative action.
neutral or move to advocate If you stakeholder is an ambivalent,
your communication objective is to keep them neutral or move to advocate.
your stakeholders' likely reactions to a crisis and to guide your
you can use the Stakeholder Reaction
of a completed Stakeholder Assessment.
to work effectively with stakeholders, be accessible, respectful, timely,
clear in your communication, and dependable.
are mistakes that are often made when dealing with stakeholders:
- No energy
little, too late
minimize negatives with stakeholder, remember the following points:
factors that inspire trust
attention to response process and engage partners
only what you can deliver